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"Today the concept of truth is viewed with suspicion, because truth is identified with violence. Over history there have, unfortunately, been episodes when people sought to defend the truth with violence. But they are two contrasting realities. Truth cannot be imposed with means other than itself! Truth can only come with its own light. Yet, we need truth. ... Without truth we are blind in the world, we have no path to follow. The great gift of Christ was that He enabled us to see the face of God".Pope Benedict xvi, February 24th, 2012

The Church is ecumenical, catholic, God-human, ageless, and it is therefore a blasphemy—an unpardonable blasphemy against Christ and against the Holy Ghost—to turn the Church into a national institution, to narrow her down to petty, transient, time-bound aspirations and ways of doing things. Her purpose is beyond nationality, ecumenical, all-embracing: to unite all men in Christ, all without exception to nation or race or social strata. - St Justin Popovitch

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Thursday, 5 October 2017

"IMAGE AND ICON, BAPTISM AND EUCHARIST" BY DOM ALEX ECHEANDIA plus ORTHODOX QUOTATIONS & VIDEOS ON THESE SACRAMENTS

WELCOME BACK, FATHER ALEX!

                                   
a)    Baptism
b)   Eucharist




Baptism



 Early XIV century, Ohrid, Serbia



Composition of the icons for the Baptism of Christ developed between the third and sixth centuries and they have remained mainly consistent since then. Icons show the Lord Jesus appearing and revealing himself in public in a special way. Not just the Son, but the two other persons of the Trinity are manifested: one in a form of a dove and the other the voice that calls upon his son. Here the Holy Trinity is revealed, Christ is baptized and the origins of Christian baptism are discerned.




The Epiphany for the West is mainly focused on the visit of the Magi; while in the East, what is called “Theophany” or “Epiphany” relates to the Baptism of Christ. This separate celebration of Christ’s Baptism feast dates from the fourth century.[1] Before that it was united to the Nativity. This separate celebration was a reflection of the situation in the Church at the time.  In the fourth century, the Church was prepared to answer questions about the divinity of Christ raised by Arius from Alexandria (250-336 AC). Is Jesus divine?  Does this mean that he is God? “Of course”, we may say, but it was not certain in the first centuries of Christianity. Icons of Baptism reflect the teaching of the Church at the Council of Nicea in 325. 



Jesus is the Second Person of the Trinity, God the Son Incarnate from the Virgin Mary. Thus, icons manifest in colours, lines and other elements the teaching of the Church at the councils, the central truth of our faith, like the Divine Maternity of Mary, Her Virginity and that Christ is the incarnate Son of God, truly God and truly Man united in one person.



The icon of the Baptism of Christ reproduces the gospel account. It also contains other elements taken from the liturgy and from other biblical texts. The implication of the Trinity, for example, at the beginning of Genesis: “Let there be light” is implied in the symbol of the ray of light at the centre of the icon.[2] It also recalls the column of light in the desert as God’s presence.  The Trinity is manifested in the icon without divisions. It is a unity.






Christ in the Jordan blessed the water in order that we may enter into a renewed life, a new creation. Christ immersed in the Jordan symbolized our own immersion in the waters of Baptism. Christian baptism follows Christ in the Jordan. Liturgical text and liturgical actions in the East accompany this event. Texts refer to Christ saving Adam by cleansing and enlightenment. He comes to slay the enemy hidden in the waters in order to deliver the world from his snares and give eternal life to mankind.[3] Dragons are frequently represented in this icon and in hymns derived from the Psalm 74:13 “You divided the sea by your might; you broke the heads of the sea monsters on the waters.” Other texts show a sense of paradox like: The master baptized by the servant, the Source of joy baptized in the streams of the Jordan, the Invisible becoming visible at the Jordan.




In practice, the liturgical act is an extension of what Christ did at the Jordan. The waters were blessed and the life of his creation renewed. So, the day before Theophany, called Forefeast, the first blessing of the water is for the sacrament of Baptism and other uses in the Church. It takes place at the centre of the church. The second blessing of water takes place outside in the environment such as rivers and seas because they are related to nature for the use of everyday’s life.





Water as a key element of material creation becomes instrument of renewal, healing and sanctification administered by the Church. In the icon the dark central area representing the waters of the Jordan looks very much like a mouth of a cave. It may recall to similar features to the icons of Nativity and Anastasis (Easter). He is portrayed standing naked in the Jordan symbolizing the nakedness of Adam. His right hand is always blessing the waters. Above Christ is John the Baptist with his right hand on Jesus’s head and with the other pointing out either the one who is been baptized or to the one who send him, all in the light of the Trinity. He is in a higher level representing the humility of Christ, the Servant of God




On the right there are angels attending this mystery. They show that heavens are participating in this cosmic event at the Baptism of him who is Human and Divine, God and Man at the same time. Their hands covered and their bowed position show a sign of veneration.  At the top of the icon we see the dark blue shape representing the divine reality from which comes a ray that contains in it the dove descending on Christ. It also is seen in icons of the Annunciation and Nativity manifesting the Trinity in a mysterious way bringing about in different events God’s plan of salvation. The dove also is related to the story of the flood in the Old Testament in the figure of Noah. It involves destruction and a new beginning.



The sacrament of Baptism takes us into Christ work of redemption achieved by his death and resurrection. It is signified in his baptism, because here the Holy Trinity has been manifested as it was manifested at the Transfiguration of Christ. The words of the Father are very similar, and the cloud that covered Jesus and the shape of dove upon Jesus reveal the link between these two events.  The image of the Baptism of Christ is interpreted as the opening of a  path to a new life. 




The movement from death to life reminds us that his death and his resurrection opens the door to our own resurrection in Him. John Chrysostom said: "Going down into the water and coming up again in baptism are the image of the descent of Christ into Hades and of his resurrection."[4] Thus, the icon of the Baptism of Christ, like all other true icons, is embedded in Scripture and the Tradition of the Church. They exist in order to invigorate the spiritual and theological life of the faithful. Through these icons we can approach God and God can approach us in a more familiar way. We can meet the Lord in his mysteries as we prepare our hearts to be responsive to God in the ordinary circumstances of our lives.

Orthodox Quotations on Baptism
St. John Chrysosotom: [W]hen you are about to pass over the threshold of the gateway . . .
[W]hen you are about to pass over the threshold of the gateway, say this word first: I leave your ranks, Satan, and your pomp, and your service, and I join the ranks of Christ. And never go forth without this word. This shall be a staff to you, this your armor, this an impregnable fortress, and accompany this word with the sign of the cross on your forehead. For thus not only a man who meets you, but even the devil himself, will be unable to hurt you at all, when he sees you everywhere appearing with these weapons; and discipline yourself by these means henceforth, in order that when you receive the seal you may be a well-equipped soldier, and planting your trophy against the devil, may receive the crown of righteousness, which may it be the lot of us all to obtain, through the grace and lovingkindness of our Lord Jesus Christ, with whom be glory to the Father and to the Holy Spirit for ever and ever— Amen.

+ St. John Chrysostom, Instructions to Catechumens

St. Nikodemos of the Holy Mountain: The grace of the Holy Spirit which is given mystically to every Christian . . .

“The grace of the Holy Spirit which is given mystically to every Christian when he is baptized acts and is manifested in proportion to our obedience to the commandments of the Lord. That is, if a Christian obeys the commandments of the Lord more, grace acts with him more, while if he obeys them less, grace acts within him less. Just as a spark, when covered in the ashes of fire becomes increasingly manifest as one removes the ashes, and the more fire wood you put the more the fire burns, so the grace that has been given to every Christian through Holy Baptism is hidden in the heart and covered up by the passions and sins, and the more a man acts in accordance with the commandments of Christ, the more he is cleansed of the passions and the more the fire of Divine grace lights in his heart, illumines and deifies him.”

+ St. Nikodemos of the Holy Mountain, Christian Morality


St. John of Kronstadt: Sermon on the Nativity of Jesus Christ (Part 4)


Nativity of Jesus“Let us glorify God! With the coming of the Son of God in the flesh upon the earth, with His offering Himself up as a sacrifice for the sinful human race, there is given to those who believe the blessing of the Heavenly Father, replacing that curse which had been uttered by God in the beginning; they are adopted and receive the promise of an eternal inheritance of life. To a humanity orphaned by reason of sin, the Heavenly Father returns anew through the mystery of re-birth, that is, through baptism and repentance. People are freed of the tormenting, death-bearing authority of the devil, of the afflictions of sin and of various passions.”

+ St. John of Kronstadt, Sermon on the Nativity of Jesus Christ

St. Nektarios: Christians, have we understood the great responsibility that we have taken . . .

Christians, have we understood the great responsibility that we have taken on before God through baptism? Have we come to know that we must conduct ourselves as children of God, that we must align our will with the will of God, that we must remain free from sin, that we must love God with all our hearts and always patiently await union with Him? Have we thought about the fact that our heart should be so filled with love that it should overflow to our neighbor? Do we have the feeling that we must become holy and perfect, children of God and heirs of the Kingdom of Heaven? We must struggle for this, so that we may not be shown unworthy and rejected. Let none of us lose our boldness, nor neglect our duties, nor be afraid of the difficulties of spiritual struggle. For we have God as a helper, who strengthens us in the difficult path of virtue.”

+ St. Nektarius of Aegina, The Path to Happiness, 2




Eucharist





    A good icon that refers to the Eucharist is the Famous Trinity icon of Andrei Rublev. It is based on the Old Testament account of the hospitality of Abraham under the oak of Mamre.[5] The three mysterious pilgrims which the bible called angels announced the miraculous birth of Isaac, an announcement that fulfilled what God had promised to Abraham. This event became a source of patristic interpretations, but it was in the East of the ninth and tenth centuries that used it in liturgical and theological works.[6] They saw in this event the symbolic apparition to Abraham of the Holy Trinity.




The three angels, grouped together in a conversation round the table, outline the shape of a circle, a perfect figure. Symbols of the bread and the chalice contain a calf’s head. It is the symbol of the lamb of sacrifice which becomes the centre of the circle.  It refers to the passion, death and Resurrection of Christ, the love manifested in the sacrifice of the cross. So, the Icon of the Trinity as Eucharist shows us that God’s love for man which results in the Incarnation has its origin in the very Nature of the Triune God as Eternal Love and Communion.



The lines that make up the image are replete with theological implications.. We can also concentrate on the “back to front” perspective. It is not a natural, temporal and realistic perspective.   The point in the picture where all lines meet is not, as in other pictures, behind the figures: they meet in the heart of the person looking at the icon!! It is as though the persons are looking at us, that we are the picture, rather than the other way round. It is not man who contemplates God but God who contemplates man. In the same way, Christ offered Himself in his body and blood to us without any merits from our part.  The icon draws us into the dimension of the eternal.



There are various interpretations of the individual persons. The Father may be on the right because this would put Christ on his right, which is his normal position.  On the other hand, He may be represented by the angel on the left because the other two persons wear stoles, and he does not.  A stole means that a person has been sent. Both the Son and the Spirit were sent; the Father was the One who sent the Son and the Spirit. What most people who interpret this icon agree, is that the Son is in the middle. He is blessing the cup and the the gifts, as he did in the last Supper and on the Road to Emmaus. He is also the one the People of God saw face to face when he became man.  



So, the meal prepared by Abraham and Sarah prefigures the Last Supper. It was during the Last Supper that Christ founded the Church and instituted the Sacrament of the Eucharist. In addition, a liturgical Eucharistic act is seen here. The two angels at each side stand for the priests saying the prayers over the Eucharistic gifts.  It is a reflection of the Liturgy of Heaven. Thus, to share the table the Trinity also recalls the Eucharist banquet of the Kingdom of Heaven.





The Holy Eucharist Icon






Following what we mentioned about the Eucharist banquet in heaven, this icon does not depict an event from the life of Christ or His apostles. Rather, it represents the timeless, eternal, and mystical event being celebrated celestially. The Eucharist is not restricted to a particular time or place.




The Eucharist was already described by St. Paul[7] as the “proclamation” of Christ’s death and Second Coming. As the purpose of Scripture is essentially the proclamation of the Kingdom and the announcement of eschatological realities, the Eucharist is a foretaste of the Kingdom.



The icon frequently has the Scriptures on the altar with the words: I am the Living Bread which came down from heaven. It comes from John’s Gospel 6:32. Christ is presented as bread, and sometimes icons place Christ in a chalice symbolizing his own body and blood. In other icons Mary is behind Christ in the shape of a chalice representing the container, the one who bears the Lamb of God in her womb.









[1] John Chrisostom says: “It is not the day when Christ was born that should be called epiphany, but the day when he was baptised because before the day of his baptism he was not known to the people”. Cf. Festival of Icons for the Christian year by John Baggley, p. 49.




[2] Cf. The Art of the Icon by Paul Evdokimov, p. 295.
[3] Cf. Cf. Festival of Icons for the Christian year by John Baggley, p. 49. Text taken from  the Sixth Hour on the Eve of the Theophany.
[4] Homily 1 Cor. 40; PG 61,34 B.
[5] Genesis 18
[6] Taken from Dionisij Worshop 2000,  p.12.
[7] I Cor. 11

THE INNER MEANING OF THE DIVINE LITURGY
"Heaven on Earth"
by Met. Kallistos Ware




QUOTATIONS ON THE EUCHARIST
ON TRANSUBSTANTIATION

During the iconoclasm controversy (eighth–ninth centuries), the change in the Eucharist was used to refute the arguments of iconoclasts who claimed the Eucharist was the only true icon of Christ. In these debates, the iconodule St. Theodore the Studite wrote, “We confess that the faithful receive the very body and blood of Christ, according to the voice of God himself.” The reality of transubstantiation was a refutation of iconoclasm. The Eucharist was not an icon of Christ, but was the real and true presence of the person Jesus Christ in the bread and wine of the Eucharist; or rather, a true symbol.

 340. How are we to understand the word transubstantiation?

In the exposition of the faith by the Eastern Patriarchs, it is said that the word transubstantiation is not to be taken to define the manner in which the bread and wine are changed into the Body and Blood of the Lord; for this none can understand but God; but only thus much is signified, that the bread truly, really, and substantially becomes the very true Body of the Lord, and the wine the very Blood of the Lord. In like manner John Damascene, treating of the Holy and Immaculate Mysteries of the Lord, writes thus: “It is truly that Body, united with Godhead, which had its origin from the Holy Virgin; not as though that Body which ascended came down from heaven, but because the bread and wine themselves are changed into the Body and Blood of God. But if thou seekest after the manner how this is, let it suffice thee to be told that it is by the Holy Ghost; in like manner as, by the same Holy Ghost, the Lord formed flesh to himself, and in himself, from the Mother of God; nor know I aught more than this, that the Word of God is true, powerful, and almighty, but its manner of operation unsearchable.” (J. Damasc. Theol. lib. iv. cap. 13, § 7.)

Longer Catechism of the Orthodox, Catholic, Eastern Church by St. Philaret (Drozdov) of Moscow (1830)

He is not present typically, nor figuratively, nor by superabundant grace, as in the other Mysteries, nor by a bare presence, as some of the Fathers have said concerning Baptism, or by impanation, so that the Divinity of the Word is united to the set forth bread of the Eucharist hypostatically, as the followers of Luther most ignorantly and wretchedly suppose.
But truly and really, so that after the consecration of the bread and of the wine, the bread is transmuted, transubstantiated, converted and transformed into the true Body itself of the Lord, Which was born in Bethlehem of the ever-Virgin, was baptized in the Jordan, suffered, was buried, rose again, was received up, sits at the right hand of the God and Father, and is to come again in the clouds of Heaven; and the wine is converted and transubstantiated into the true Blood itself of the Lord, Which as He hung upon the Cross, was poured out for the life of the world.

Orthodox Confession of Dositheus, Patriarch of Jerusalem (1672)


Fourthly, attention must be paid that the priest have, at the time of consecration, the intention that the real substance of the bread and the substance of wine be transubstantiated into the real body and blood of Christ through the operation of the Holy Spirit.
He makes this invocation when he confects this mystery by praying and saying: “Send your Holy Spirit upon us and upon these gifts here offered and make this bread the precious body of your Christ, and that which is in this chalice the precious blood of your Christ, changing them by your Holy Spirit.”
Transubstantiation occurs immediately with these words, and the bread is transubstantiated into the real body of Christ and the wine into the real blood of Christ, with the visible appearances alone remaining.

Orthodox Confession of Faith, Peter Mogila, Metropolitan of Kiev (1633-1647)

THE EUCHARIST AS SACRIFICE
"offered by whom to whom"
by Met. Kallistos Ware


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