"Today the concept of truth is viewed with suspicion, because truth is identified with violence. Over history there have, unfortunately, been episodes when people sought to defend the truth with violence. But they are two contrasting realities. Truth cannot be imposed with means other than itself! Truth can only come with its own light. Yet, we need truth. ... Without truth we are blind in the world, we have no path to follow. The great gift of Christ was that He enabled us to see the face of God".Pope Benedict xvi, February 24th, 2012

The Church is ecumenical, catholic, God-human, ageless, and it is therefore a blasphemy—an unpardonable blasphemy against Christ and against the Holy Ghost—to turn the Church into a national institution, to narrow her down to petty, transient, time-bound aspirations and ways of doing things. Her purpose is beyond nationality, ecumenical, all-embracing: to unite all men in Christ, all without exception to nation or race or social strata. - St Justin Popovitch

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Thursday, 20 August 2015


Tolkien’s Catholic Inspiration for Galadriel

When one considers J.R.R. Tolkien’s sources for ‘The Lord of the Rings’ and its accompanying mythology, one must not neglect to examine Tolkien’s Catholic faith. Tolkien’s mother Mabel converted to Catholicism when he was eight years old, and she then brought her sons up in that faith until she died four years later. Tolkien and his younger brother were then given into the care of a priest named Father Francis Morgan, who became a considerable influence on the author.

Tolkien’s Catholic faith was a very important aspect of his life. While the Lord of the Rings trilogy is not an overtly religious story, Tolkien’s Catholic faith can readily be seen upon reading it. Indeed, in a letter to a friend in 1953, Tolkien wrote, that ‘The Lord of the Rings’ was “…fundamentally [a] Catholic and Religious work; unconsciously so at first, but consciously in the revision.” One example of Catholicism in the Lord of the Rings is Galadriel and how she relates to Mary, Mother of God.

Tolkien once wrote that Mary gave him his understanding of “beauty in majesty and simplicity.” To understand how the creation of Galadriel was influenced by Mary, one must first know something about how Catholics view Mary. As the Mother of Jesus, Mary is a very important figure in Catholicism. With a special Grace from God, she was born without sin and lived and died without ever sinning. Catholics hold her in special reverence, though they do not worship her, and regard her as “the Mother of the Church,” among other names. Mary is “Our Lady.” Sam uses a similar name when he repeatedly calls Galadriel “the Lady.” In many ways, Galadriel exemplifies Mary’s qualities.

First, Mary is often portrayed in much the same way as Galadriel: ethereal, bathed in light, gentle, beautiful, and inspiring. Each is viewed as a “queen”: Mary as Queen of the Catholic Church and Galadriel as the Lady of Lothlorien. Much as Galadriel is held in reverence by the Elves and the other inhabitants of Middle-earth, Mary is beloved by Catholics. Many in the history of the Catholic Church have been converted and reconciled through Mary’s grace and gentleness. In the same way, Gimli, a Dwarf, a race that does not get along with the Elves, has a change of heart after meeting Galadriel. Tolkien wrote:

“And the dwarf . . . looked up and met her eyes; and it seemed to him that he looked into the heart of an enemy and saw there love and understanding. Wonder came into his face and he smiled in answer” (LOTR).

Gimli is thereafter known as Gimli Elf-Friend. The light of Galadriel inspires grace, just as Mary does.

Another example of the parallels between Mary and Galadriel is their bestowing of gifts. As the Fellowship prepares to leave Lothlorien, to continue their journey, Galadriel gives the members special Elven gifts, especially the cloaks. These gifts continually help the travelers on their mission to rid Middle-earth of the evil corrupting it. The gift of the cloaks, which would “aide in keeping out the sight of unfriendly eyes” and were “made by the Lady”, is similar to a gift Mary made to Saint Simon of Stock. According to Catholic legend, Mary gave the saint a scapular, a cloth worn around the neck, which she and some angels had made. Mary told St. Simon that anyone who lived a holy life, wearing the scapular, would be protected from the devil’s sight. Both Mary and Galadriel give gifts which protect the recipients from evil.

Finally, Mary and Galadriel inspire hope for the faithful. Catholics look to Mary as they would to their own mothers, for guidance, encouragement, and blessings. The members of the Fellowship treat Galadriel similarly. When in Mordor, Sam prayerfully says:

“If only the Lady could see or hear us, I’d say to her: ‘Your Ladyship, all we want is light and water; just clean water and plain daylight, better than jewels, begging your pardon.’”

Frodo and Sam are then indeed granted these things, which revive them enough to be able to continue their arduous journey.

Mary’s grace helps Catholics be at peace, just as Galadriel’s does when she tells the weary travelers:

“Do not let your hearts be troubled . . . Tonight you shall sleep in peace.”

Her gift of the phial is a light “in dark places, when all other lights go out”, just as Mary’s love is to Catholics. These gifts of Mary and Galadriel are not mere symbolic, but tangible and readily felt by those who believe.

Galadriel’s role in ‘The Lord of the Rings’ is similar to the role of Jesus’ mother Mary in the Catholic Church. Both are awe-inspiring as Ladies who bring about changes of heart. Both provide gifts and grace to those in need. And both inspire hope in the hearts of their followers that they may continue on their journey. Tolkien’s strong belief in his Catholic faith inspired him to write his beliefs into his masterpiece. One might even say, as he did, that his faith in Mary moved him to write the books that have been an inspiration to many.

Researched and written by Lady_Nienna

Gimli, Galadriel, and Guadalupe: An image of Our Lady in the Lady of Lothlorien

One of the most profound and immediate changes in a character in The Lord of the Rings is the transformation of Gimli the dwarf. This development doesn’t occur because of an encounter with the One Ring or during any of the many battles in which Gimli fights. Instead, Gimli experiences a dramatic change of heart upon meeting the Lady of Lothlorien, Galadriel.

Gimli son of Gloin is a brave and faithful dwarf who is firmly on the side of good and never wavers throughout the fellowship’s journey. But he is still a dwarf, a race with a long history of animosity with elves. This enmity nearly brings disaster on the ring bearer’s quest when the elves of Lothlorien require Gimli to wear a blindfold before he enters their land. After much bickering and name calling on the part of both Gimli and Legolas, the whole company agrees to go forth blindfolded. Still, this unsatisfactory compromise doesn’t assuage the deep-seated hatred between elves and dwarfs. Gimli remains unimpressed by elves and distrustful of the Lady Galadriel.

But this all changes when Gimli meets Galadriel. The Lady of the Galadhrim speaks kindly to the dwarf and he sees in her a light that moves him greatly. Tolkien describes the change like this:

“She looked upon Gimli, who sat glowering and sad, and she smiled. And the Dwarf, hearing the names given in his own ancient tongue, looked up and met her eyes, and it seemed to him that he looked suddenly into the heart of an enemy and saw there love and understanding. Wonder came into his face, and then he smiled in answer.” (Tolkien, The Fellowship of the Ring, “The Mirror of Galadriel”)

The change isn’t limited to Gimli’s opinion of one elf lady. He suddenly looks on all elves differently. He develops a new appreciation for the land of Lorien and its forests. He wanders often with Legolas, an elf he almost came to blows with only days earlier. This particular elf and dwarf have more than the usual antagonism common to their races; their feud is personal. Gimli’s father was once wrongfully imprisoned by Legolas’ father in the dungeons of his Mirkwood stronghold. So their new friendship is peculiar to say the least. Tolkien says all the other companions wondered greatly at the change.

Gimli kneeling before Galadriel

But the change in Gimli isn’t fully evident until the departure of the company from Lothlorien. At this parting, as Galadriel presents gifts to each of the companions, she asks Gimli what he desires. At first, Gimli demures, “‘It is enough for me to have seen the Lady of the Galadhrim, and to have heard her gentle words.’” But as the Lady presses him again, he responds:

“‘There is nothing, Lady Galadriel,’ said Gimli, bowing low and stammering. ‘Nothing unless it might be – unless it is permitted to ask, nay, to name a single strand of your hair, which surpasses the gold of the earth as the stars surpass the gems of the mine. I do not ask for such a gift. But you commanded me to name my desire.” (Fellowship, “Farewell to Lorien”)

Galadriel’s hair was not, of course, something plain or common. Tolkien calls her hair “a marvel unmatched.” The elves told that the light of the trees Laurelin and Telperien (which preceded the sun and moon) was caught in her hair and that her tresses were coveted by Fëanor (Unfinished Tales, “The History of Galadriel and Celeborn”). So the elves who hear Gimli’s request are shocked and murmur amongst themselves. But the lady fulfills the desire, giving him three (not a meaningless number) hairs with the words, “none have ever made to me a request so bold and yet so courteous.’” Gimli treasures the small lock of hair and carries the three strands as a sign of his devotion to the Lady of the Wood, Queen Galadriel.

Galadriel pours out water which allows Frodo and Sam to see. Get it? She’s like a vessel…

Without the right lens, Gimli’s change upon meeting Galadriel is a bit odd. Indeed, Peter Jackson turns the event into something a bit silly, almost hinting at a strange interspecies crush. But what is the alternative? There are elements here of a chivalric relationship between a knight and lady. And while Tolkien certainly had chivalry in mind, that concept doesn’t fully explain Gimli’s dramatic transformation and deep devotion.

The key to understanding Galadriel and her affect on Gimli is in the Lady of the Galadhrim’s Marian roots. Tolkien clearly meant her as a figure of the Virgin Mary. Galadriel is beautiful and majestic. She reflects the light of the stars. She is perceptive and gracious. She gives gifts and help and comfort. Many of these qualities don’t quite reflect Mary as the poor and lowly handmaid of the Lord. So, without a Catholic perspective, the allusions could be easy to miss. But Tolkien possessed not just a devotion to his Catholic faith but a devotion to Our Lady as well. So he surely viewed Mary as she truly is, Queen of Heaven and source of perpetual help.

The gift Galadriel gave to Frodo was, in essence, star light.

Interestingly, the character of Galadriel changed over the course of the years as Tolkien developed his world’s history. At first, he wrote that she, along with many of the other elves of her kind, was culpable in the rebellion in Valinor (If you don’t know what I’m talking about, don’t worry. Just nerd stuff). But, later, he changed his mind on this and wrote that she was innocent of any wrongdoing. Actually, the word he used was “unstained,” clearly an allusion to Mary’s Immaculate Conception. Apparently, Tolkien’s vision of Galadriel became clearer even to himself. In a letter to a priest friend, Robert Murray, Tolkien wrote:

“I think I know exactly what you mean by the order of Grace; and of course by your references to Our Lady, upon which all my own small perception of beauty both in majesty and simplicity is founded. The Lord of the Rings is of course a fundamentally religious and Catholic work; unconsciously so at first, but consciously in the revision. ”Letter to Robert Murray, S.J., 2 December 1953

In light of Galadriel’s Marian qualities, it is little wonder Gimli responds to her in the way he does. Gimli doesn’t develop a strange crush or even merely adopt a chivalric dedication, as noble as that might be. Instead, he discovers a devotion to Our Lady. A devotion reminiscent of consecration as he goes on to carry her hair around his neck (part relic, part scapular) and defend her honor in distant lands.

The Virgin Mary as she appeared in Mexico.

As I read this passage recently – the first time since becoming Catholic – I couldn’t help but think of Galadriel in terms of Marian apparitions. One interesting element of most apparitions is that Mary usually appears as someone “local.” At Guadalupe, she was an Aztec maiden. At Lourdes, a French woman. At Kibeho, she appeared to the Rwandan girls as, well, a Rwandan girl. So why doesn’t Mary just appear as she was 2,000 years ago when she gave birth to the Christ?

It’s possible Mary takes on the appearance of different peoples to make those she appears to more comfortable. But Our Lady isn’t a sorceress or a shape shifter. I think the familiarity of her physical appearance is actually indicative of a deeper reality about her apparitions. Mary is recognizable when she appears not because of her skin color or her clothes but because of something deeper. She is Our Lady. She is our mother. Those who know her can easily look past external characteristics and perceive her as she really is.

Boticelli’s Madonna of the Book. A beautiful portrayal of Mary. And vaguely reminiscent of Galadriel…

And this is what happens to Gimli when he hears Galadriel’s voice. He hears not just words he understands. He hears words he knows deeply. And when he looks to her eyes he sees “love and understanding.” In this way, Galadriel is once again like Our Lady and Gimli’s love for her is not only understandable but completely natural. It may seem like hyperbole when Gimli says, “the Lady Galadriel is above all the jewels that lie beneath the earth!” But, if Galadriel is a figure of Mary, then these words are perfectly reasonable. In fact, Gimli’s description of the Lady of the Wood is similar to the words of Saint Proclus of Constantinople who said of the Virgin Mary:

“O man, run through all creation with your thought, and see if there exists anything comparable to or greater than the holy Virgin, Mother of God. Circle the whole world, explore all the oceans, survey the air, question the skies, consider all the unseen powers, and see if there exists any other similar wonder in the whole creation!”

Indeed, the Mother of God does possess such worth and beauty. She has inspired devotion in countless saints and servants of God. She continues to be a vessel of grace and a source of help for all her children. And love for her ought to flow naturally with the Christian’s love for Jesus. Gimli’s love for his Lady cut a channel in his heart deep and wide. When he is forced to part from her, he grieves mightily and, to his curious new elf friend, openly laments:

“‘Tell me, Legolas, why did I come on this Quest? Little did I know where the chief peril lay! Truly Elrond spoke, saying that we could not foresee what we might meet upon our road. Torment in the dark was the danger that I feared, and it did not hold me back. But I would not have come, had I known the danger of light and joy. Now I have taken my worst wound in this parting, even if I were to go this night straight to the Dark Lord. Alas for Gimli son of Gloin!’” (Fellowship, “Farewell to Lorien”)

Oh! that my love for the Blessed Virgin Mary were like that of Gimli for Galadriel! That I would perceive her as she really is; as the Ark of the new covenant, the Mother of God. That I would accept her constant help. That I would hear her voice and let her lead me to her Son, the light of the world. That would be a dangerous encounter indeed. An encounter filled with light and joy!

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